We often hear about the importance of knowing first aid, but we brush it off till an accident happens. Ofwhich it is too late to start learning about essential first aid tips that could save someone’s life. Which is why it is very important to be prepared. First aid is even much important when you are a mom, because when kids are growing and developing, they are naturally curious and they are vulnerable to all kinds of accidents. That is why, you should stay prepared with the right information and supplies.
Here is a list of 10 first aid tips that you should know;

1). CHOKING IN INFANTS.
Babies can and do choke on food and toys. When this happens you need to act faster because choking blocks the airway making breathing difficult.

Step 1; Assess the situation quickly.
If the baby is coughing or gaggling, it means the airway is only partially blocked. Let her continue to cough, coughing is the most effective way to dislodge a blockage.
If the baby isn’t able to cough up the object;

Step 2; Try to dislodge the object with back blows and chest thrusts.

Carefully position the baby face down, with the baby’s head lower than the chest. Using the heel of your hand, deliver five firm and distinct back blows between the baby’s shoulder blades to try to dislodge the object. If the object does not come out, the do the chest thrusts.

Turn the baby face up. Place the pads of two or three fingers in the center of the baby’s chest, just below the imaginary line running between her nipples. Push straight down on the chest about 1½ inches, then allow the chest to come back to it’s normal position. Do five chest thrusts. They should be smooth and not jerky.

Repeat back blows and chest thrusts.
Open the baby’s mouth look for the blockage and remove it.
If the baby becomes unresponsive, lower the baby and start CRP.
Seek medical attention as quickly as possible.
Never put your finger in baby’s mouth if you cant see the blockage.

choking in infants and older kids respectively

2). CHOKING IN OLDER KIDS.
Step 1; Bend the child forward and use the heel of your hand to give a sharp back blow between the shoulder blades. Check to see if the blockage has cleared before giving another blow. If the blockage hasn’t cleared after five blows, try chest thrusts.

Step 2; Place one hand in the middle of the child’s back and the other hand in the center of his chest, using the heel of the hand on the chest, do five chest thrusts. Check to see if the blockage has cleared between each thrust.

3). BREATHING PROBLEMS. (PERFORMING CRP).

CRP on a baby less than 12months
CRP in older kids and adolescents

Breathing difficulty is almost always a medical emergency. There are many different causesfor breathing problems. Common causes include some health conditions and sudden medical emergencies such as accidents.

Step 1: If a baby is unconscious, check her mouth for airway blockages – for example, tongue, food, vomit or blood. If there’s a blockage, use your little finger to clear it. Place baby on her back to open her airway.

Step 2: Check for breathing. Listen for the sound of the breath, look for movements of the chest or feel for the breath on your cheek.

Step 3: If baby is breathing, place him in the recovery position by lying him face down on your forearm. Phone your local emergency services number. Check baby regularly for breaths and responses until the ambulance arrives.

Step 4: Position two fingers in the center of baby’s chest and give 30 compressions at a rate of about 100 compressions per minute. Each compression should depress the chest by about one third.

Step 5: Tilt the baby’s head back very slightly with the chin lifted to bring the tongue away from the back of the throat, opening her airway. Take a breath and seal her mouth and nose with your mouth. Blow gently and steadily for about one second. Watch for the rise and fall of the chest. Take another breath and repeat the sequence.

Step 6: Continue giving 30 compressions followed by 2 breaths until medical help arrives. If the child starts breathing and responding, turn her into the recovery position. Keep watching her breathing and be ready to start CPR again at any time.

4). NOSE BLEEDS.

Nose bleeds are common and are caused by a number of reasons. The solution is simple with easy to follow steps;

Step 1; Sit the child upright and let her lean forward. By remaini g upright, the blood pressure is reduced in the veins of her nose. This discourages further bleeding. Sitting upright will help her avoid swallowing blood, which irritates the stomach.

Step 2; Pinch her nose using your thumb and index finger. Ask her to breathe through the mouth. Pinching sends pressure to the bleeding point on the nasal septum and often stop the flow of the blood.

Do this for 10-15 minutes, checking if the bleeding has stopped after every 5 minutes
Ask her not to pick or blow her nose.

5). BURNS.

Burns are of different grades. It is best to seek medical assistance, but for minor burns;

Step 1; Cool the burn using running water or apply cool wet compress until the pain eases.

Step 2). Gently remove tight clothing or items from the burned area.
Don’t break blisters. This avoids infections.

Step 3; Apply lotion or an antibiotic cream. This will prevent dying and provide relief.

Step 4; Bandage the burn. Wrap it loosely and avoid putting pressure on the burned skin. Bandaging keeps air off the area, reducing pain and protecting the blistered skin.
If needed, take an over-the-counter pain reliever.

6). SPRAINS.

Ankle sprains are the most common type of sprains. For most minor sprains you probably can start initial injury treatment yourself;

Step 1; Rest the injured limb. Ask her to rest inside if she can or carry her inside.

Step 2; Ice the area.place a cold ice pack on the injured area. This will limit swelling after the injury.

Step 3; Compress the area with elastic wrap or bandage. This is painful, so do it gently.

Step 4; Elevate the limb above her heart whenever possible to help prevent and limit swelling. You can do this by placing a pillow beneath her limb while she is laying on the sofa or bed.
Seek medical help if you suspect more than just a minor sprain.

7). CUTS AND SCRAPES.

If possible, before touching the bleeding area, wash your hands with soap and water. If you have synthetic gloves, fantastic!, use them.

Step 2; Stop the bleeding. Minor cuts and scrapes usually stop bleeding on their own. If needed, apply gentle pressure with a clean bandage or cloth and elavate the wound until bleeding stops.

Step 3; Clean the wound. Rinse the wound with soap and water, but dont get soap in the wound. Remove any dirt or debris with tweezers cleaned with alcohol..

Step 4; Apply antibiotic or petroleum jelly. This keeps the surface moist and help prevent scaring.

Step 5; Cover the wound; covering a wound keeps it clean.
Change the dressing atleast once a day.
Get a tetanus shot if you haven’t had one in the past 5 years and the cut is deep.
Watch for signs of infections such as increased pain, warmth and swelling.
Seek medical help is the cut needs suturing.

8). FOREIGN OBJECTS IN THE NOSE.

While playing, children can get objects in their nose while playing.

Step 1; Do not probe the nose with a tool such as cotton swab. You will be risking pushing the object further.

Step 2; Ask her to not try to inhale the object forcefully.

Step 3; Ask her to blow her nose gently while you apply pressure on the other nostril.

Step 4; Gently remove the object if visible and can be grasped.
Seek medical help if the object is stuck.

9). FOREIGN OBJECT IN THE EAR.

Step 1; Dont probe the ear with a tool such as cotton swab or match stick. You will be risking pushing the object further.

Step 2; Remove the object if possible, if the object is clearly visible, pliable and can be grasped easily, gently remove it.

Step 3; Try using gravity. Tilt her head to the affected side to try to dislodge the object.

Step 4; Try using oil- for an insect. This will float the insect out by pouring mineral oil or baby oil in her ear. Please dont use oil for any other object.

Step 5; Try washing the object out. Use a rubber bulb syringe and warm water to irrigate the object out of the canal.
If this method fail, seek medical help.

10). DIARRHEA AND VOMITING.

Diarrhea is not ussually a sign of serious illness, but it can make kids lose fluids, salts and minerals. If your child has diarrhea or is vomiting,

it is important to make sure fluids and nutrients are replaced.
If the child is vomiting, it soothes to wipe their face with a warm damp clothe.

When the child stops vomiting, give her sips of water or unsweetened fruit juice. You can also give her ORS.
It is advisable to give her easily digested foods like bread and pasta for the next 24hours.
If the diarrhea doesn’t stop after 24hours, seek medical assistance.

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